Temperature is a critical design parameter. It has significant effects on feed pump pressure requirements, hydraulic flux balance between stages, permeate quality, and solubility of sparingly soluble salts. As a rough rule of thumb, every 10-degree Fahrenheit decrease in feed temperature increases the feed pump pressure requirement 15 %. The hydraulic flux balance between stages (or in other words the amount of permeate produced by each stage) is impacted by temperature. When water temperature increases, the elements located in the front end of the system produce more permeate which results in reduced permeate flow by the elements located at the rear of the system. A better hydraulic flux balance between stages occurs at colder temperatures. At warmer temperatures, salt passage increases due to the increased mobility of the ions through the membrane.
Warmer temperatures decrease the solubility of calcium carbonate. Colder temperatures decrease the solubility of calcium sulfate, barium sulfate, strontium sulfate, and silica.
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