Bicarbonate (HCO3)

A monovalent anion. The solubility of calcium bicarbonate is low and can cause a RO scaling problem in the back-end of a RO. Calcium bicarbonate solubility is measured using LSI (Langlier Saturation Index) for brackish waters or the Stiff-Davis Index for seawaters and is lower with increasing temperature and increasing pH. Bicarbonate is one component of alkalinity and its concentration is in a balance with carbon dioxide between the pH range of 4.4 and 8.2 and in a balance with carbonate between the pH range of 8.2 and 9.6.

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