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Total Coliforms|Fecal Coliforms|E- Coli-Defines

Total Coliforms:Coliforms are a group of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are nonpathogenic and nonspore forming. The most common coliform genera are Escherichia, Enterobacter, Citrobacter,Serratia, and Klebsiella, with E. coli being the most abundant in the gut of humans and other warm-blooded animals. Coliform bacteria are identifiable by their ability to ferment lactose to produce acid and gas within 48 [....]

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Water Analysis Procedure of Various Species

Water Analysis Procedure of Various Species | Elements

  1. Alkalinity Determination
  2. Calculating Magnesium Hardness
  3. Calculating Calcium Hardness as CaCO3
  4. Calculation of Chemical Oxygen Demand (C.O.D)
  5. Calculation of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
  6. Determination of Mixed Liquor Volatile Suspended Solids
  7. Determination of Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids
  8. Determination of Oil & Grease
  9. Determination of Residual Chlorine
  10. Calculation of Normality
  11. Determination of Iodine Value of
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Determination of Iodine Value of Activated Carbon

Apparatus:

Volumetric flask,

conical flask,

beaker,

burette,

pipette,

filter paper

Reagents:

* 0.1N Iodine solution ( 40 gm KI in 1 Ltr of Distilled water ).

* 0.05N Sodium Thiosulphate solution (12.5 gm Na2S2O3.5H2O in 1 Ltr Distilled water)

* 1% Starch solution

* Activated carbon

Procedure:

I Standardisation of Iodine solution

* Take 10c.c of 0.1N Iodine solution in [....]

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Principle of Ion Exchange (IX)

         Ion exchange removes unwanted ions from a raw water by transferring them to a solid material, called an ion exchanger, which accepts them while giving back an equivalent number of a desirable species stored on the ion exchanger skeleton. 
         The ion exchanger has a limited capacity for storage of ions on its skeleton, called its exchange capacity; [....]

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