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A Ton of Refrigeration | 1 Ton Air Condition

A Ton of refrigeration (TR), Amount of heat require to melt a ton of Ice over 24 Hr period, that much of energy is called ton of refrigeration

A Refrigeration Ton is approximately equivalent to 12,000 BTU/Hr British thermal unit / Hour

one ton of refrigeration capacity can freeze one short ton of water at 0°C (32°F) in 24 hours. [....]

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Total Coliforms|Fecal Coliforms|E- Coli-Defines

Total Coliforms:Coliforms are a group of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are nonpathogenic and nonspore forming. The most common coliform genera are Escherichia, Enterobacter, Citrobacter,Serratia, and Klebsiella, with E. coli being the most abundant in the gut of humans and other warm-blooded animals. Coliform bacteria are identifiable by their ability to ferment lactose to produce acid and gas within 48 [....]

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Water Analysis Procedure of Various Species

Water Analysis Procedure of Various Species | Elements

  1. Alkalinity Determination
  2. Calculating Magnesium Hardness
  3. Calculating Calcium Hardness as CaCO3
  4. Calculation of Chemical Oxygen Demand (C.O.D)
  5. Calculation of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
  6. Determination of Mixed Liquor Volatile Suspended Solids
  7. Determination of Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids
  8. Determination of Oil & Grease
  9. Determination of Residual Chlorine
  10. Calculation of Normality
  11. Determination of Iodine Value of
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Determination of Iodine Value of Activated Carbon


Volumetric flask,

conical flask,




filter paper


* 0.1N Iodine solution ( 40 gm KI in 1 Ltr of Distilled water ).

* 0.05N Sodium Thiosulphate solution (12.5 gm Na2S2O3.5H2O in 1 Ltr Distilled water)

* 1% Starch solution

* Activated carbon


I Standardisation of Iodine solution

* Take 10c.c of 0.1N Iodine solution in [....]

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