A Ton of Refrigeration | 1 Ton Air Condition

ton of Refrigeration

A Ton of refrigeration (TR), Amount of heat require to melt a ton of Ice over 24 Hr period, that much of energy is called ton of refrigeration

A Refrigeration Ton is approximately equivalent to 12,000 BTU/Hr British thermal unit / Hour

one ton of refrigeration capacity can freeze one short ton of water at 0°C (32°F) in 24 hours. [....]

How to Calculate Resin Capacity for Softener | Softening Plant?

Before to Calculate the capacity of the Water Softener (softening) Plant,  to choose how much water to be softened. In this case, 100M3 to be softened at 400 ppm of Feed Hardness to 5 ppm.

How to Calculate the resin capacity?

The Resin Exchange Capacity is mention into the product’s supplier Data Sheet*.

Normally cationic exchange capacity : 55/liter of [....]

How to Calculate Detention Time of Any Tank | Basin

In waste water treatment plant you are hearing frequently the word of Detention Time.OK before to calculate the Detention Time of any tank or basin,First we should understood about that one and how it is important one.
Detention time is the length of time water is retained in a vessel or basin or the period from the time the water

Total Coliforms|Fecal Coliforms|E- Coli-Defines

Total Coliforms:Coliforms are a group of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are nonpathogenic and nonspore forming. The most common coliform genera are Escherichia, Enterobacter, Citrobacter,Serratia, and Klebsiella, with E. coli being the most abundant in the gut of humans and other warm-blooded animals. Coliform bacteria are identifiable by their ability to ferment lactose to produce acid and gas within 48 [....]

Water Analysis Procedure of Various Species

Water Analysis Procedure of Various Species | Elements

  1. Alkalinity Determination
  2. Calculating Magnesium Hardness
  3. Calculating Calcium Hardness as CaCO3
  4. Calculation of Chemical Oxygen Demand (C.O.D)
  5. Calculation of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
  6. Determination of Mixed Liquor Volatile Suspended Solids
  7. Determination of Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids
  8. Determination of Oil & Grease
  9. Determination of Residual Chlorine
  10. Calculation of Normality
  11. Determination of Iodine Value of

Determination of Iodine Value of Activated Carbon


Volumetric flask,

conical flask,




filter paper


* 0.1N Iodine solution ( 40 gm KI in 1 Ltr of Distilled water ).

* 0.05N Sodium Thiosulphate solution (12.5 gm Na2S2O3.5H2O in 1 Ltr Distilled water)

* 1% Starch solution

* Activated carbon


I Standardisation of Iodine solution

* Take 10c.c of 0.1N Iodine solution in [....]