Calculation of Chemical Oxygen Demand (C.O.D)
Round bottom flask, water condenser, Burette, Pipette,Heating mantle.
* Mercuric sulphate (< 1gm)
* Sulfuric Acid (1 Kg H2SO4 + 5.5 gm Ag2SO4 ) dissolve for 24 hrs.
* 0.25 N Potassium Dichromate (12.259 gm K2Cr2O7 dried at [....]
Food-to-Microorganism ratio (F/M ratio)
The food-to-microorganism ratio (F/M ratio) is a process control method/calculation based upon maintaining a specified balance between available food materials (BOD or COD) in the aeration tank influent and the aeration tank mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) concentration The chemical oxygen demand test is sometimes used, because the results are available in a relatively short [....]
Calculating BOD, COD, or SS loading on an aeration process
When calculating COD, BOD, or SS loading on an aeration process (or any other treatment process),loading on the process is usually calculated as lb/day. The following equation is used:
BOD, COD, or SS loading (lb/day) = mg/L x MGD x 8.34 lb/gal
The BOD concentration of the wastewater [....]
There is no possibility to reduce/remove COD & BOD Level by using Ultra Filtration (UF).
The Surface water Contain Less COD & BOD. But, In industrial Effluents,which will be higher Approximate 900 ppm and 350 ppm respectively(this is textile processing fig).
But you Can reduce these level by adopting Ozonator or U-V ray System, but the cost is High,moreover Some [....]
COD is a non-specific test that measures the quantity of both bio-degradable and non-biodegradable organic matter and is reported as "ppm as oxygen". The test measures the ability of a hot chromic acid solution to oxidize organic matter. [....]
BOD is a non-specific test that measures the quantity of "biologically-degradable" organic matter and is reported as "ppm as oxygen". The test measures the quantity of oxygen depletion resulting from the ability of common bacteria to digest organic matter during a 5-day incubation period at 20 Deg C. [....]