The pH of the feed water measures the acidity or basicity. A pH of 7.0 is considered neutral. A pH between 0.0 and 7.0 is acidic. A pH between 7.0 and 14.0 is basic. To the analytical chemist, pH is a method of expressing hydrogen ion concentration in terms of the power of 10 with the pH value being the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration. To the water chemist, pH is important in defining the alkalinity equilibrium levels of carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, carbonate and hydroxide ions. The concentrate pH is typically higher than the feed due to the higher concentration of bicarbonate/carbonate ions relative to the concentration of carbon dioxide. The RODESIGN program allows the user to adjust the pH of the feed water using hydrochloric and sulfuric acid. Lowering the feed pH with acid results in a lower LSI (Langlier Saturation Index) value, which reduces the scaling potential for calcium carbonate. Feed and concentrate (reject) pH can also effect the solubility and fouling potential of silica, aluminum, organics and oil. Variations in feed pH can also affect the rejection of ions. For example, fluoride, boron and silica rejection are lower when the pH becomes more acidic.