Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

              Carbon dioxide is a gas that when dissolved in water reacts with the water to form weak carbonic acid (H2CO3). If a pure water was completely saturated with carbon dioxide, its concentration would be about 1600 ppm and the pH would be about 4.0. A typical source for carbon dioxide in natural waters is the result of a balance with bicarbonate alkalinity based on the pH of the water. The concentration of carbon dioxide in water is typically indirectly determined by graphical comparison to the bicarbonate concentration and pH. Carbon dioxide and the bicarbonate ion are in a balance between the pH range of 4.4 and 8.2. The alkalinity is all carbon dioxide at pH 4.4 and is all bicarbonate at pH 8.4. The RO design program calculates the carbon dioxide level based on the bicarbonate level and pH of the water. Carbon dioxide, being a gas, is not rejected or concentrated by a RO membrane, therefore its concentration will the same in the feed, permeate and concentrate. Acidifying the RO feed water will lower pH by converting bicarbonate to carbon dioxide.

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