## Category: Uncategorized

### Principle of Ion Exchange (IX)

Ion exchange removes unwanted ions from a raw water by transferring them to a solid material, called an ion exchanger, which accepts them while giving back an equivalent number of a desirable species stored on the ion exchanger skeleton.
The ion exchanger has a limited capacity for storage of ions on its skeleton, called its exchange capacity; [....]

### Water Flow Calculation in Pipes

The rate of flow equals the cross-sectional Area of the pipe
Multiplied by the velocity of the water movement Through it, or
Q = AV
Where
Q = volume of flow past a given point per unit of time
A = cross-sectional area of the pipe or conduit
V = velocity of fluid travel in terms of distance per unit [....]

### TDS (Total Dissolved Solids)

TDS, in water treatment, is the inorganic residue left after the filtration of colloidal and suspended solids and then the evaporation of a known volume of water. TDS is reported as ppm or mg/l. TDS, in RO design projections, is determined by calculation using the sum of the cations, anions and silica ions (with the ion reported "as [....]

### Temperature

Temperature is a critical design parameter. It has significant effects on feed pump pressure requirements, hydraulic flux balance between stages, permeate quality, and solubility of sparingly soluble salts. As a rough rule of thumb, every 10-degree Fahrenheit decrease in feed temperature increases the feed pump pressure requirement 15 %. The hydraulic flux balance between stages (or in other words [....]

### TOC (Total Organic Carbon)

TOC, an acronym for Total Organic Carbon or Total Oxidizable Carbon, is a non-specific test that measures the amount of carbon bound in organic material and is reported in units of "ppm as carbon". Since the TOC only measures the amount of carbon in organic matter, the actual weight of the organic mass can be up to 3 [....]

### Sodium (Na)

A monovalent cation. The solubility of sodium salts is high and does not cause a RO scaling problem. Sodium, in seawater, is the prevalent cation. Sodium is the cation used to automatically balance a RO feed water analysis. Dietary sodium levels can range from 2000 mg/l for low-sodium diets to 3500 mg/l for average consumption levels. The US EPA [....]