* Weigh a clean crucible (D)
* Put the filter paper with residue in the previously weighed crucible
* Keep in the furnace at 5000C for complete ignition (for around 2 Hrs)
* After complete ignition remove the crucible from the furnace
* Cool the crucible and then weigh (E)
Note: Whatman filter paper is an ash less paper as it does not contribute to the Ash.
Calculations: Fixed Solids in ppm = (E-D) x 106/ ml. of sample taken
MLVSS in ppm = MLSS – Fixed solids.
Precision & Bias: Standard deviation was 11mg /lit at 170mg/lit volatile
total solids in studies by three laboratories on 4 samples and 10