Chlorine deactivates microorganisms through several mechanisms that can destroy most biological contaminants, including:
- Damaging the cell wall
- Altering the permeability of the cell (the ability to pass water in and out through the cell wall) • Altering the cell protoplasm
- Inhibiting the enzyme activity of the cell so it is unable to use its food to produce energy
Coagulation:Following screening and the other pretreatment processes, the next unit process in a conventional water treatment system is mixing, when chemicals are added during what is known as coagulation. The exception to this situation occurs in small systems using groundwater, where chlorine or other taste and odor control measures are often introduced at the intake and are the extent [....]
Calculation of bacterial density.
The determination of indicator bacteria, total coliform, fecal coliform, and fecal streptococcus or enterococcus is very important for assessing the quality of natural waters, drinking-waters, and wastewaters.
The procedures for enumeration of these organisms are presented elsewhere (APHA et al., 1995).
Examinations of indicator bacterial density in water and in wastewater are generally performed by using [....]
1.What is Waste water
“Wastewater,” also known as “sewage,” originates from household wastes, human and animal wastes, industrial wastewaters, storm runoff, and groundwater infiltration. Wastewater, basically, is the flow of used water from a community. It is 99.94% water by weight.The remaining 0.06% is material dissolved or suspended in the water. It is largely the water supply of a community [....]
Calculation of Chemical Oxygen Demand (C.O.D)
Round bottom flask, water condenser, Burette, Pipette,Heating mantle.
* Mercuric sulphate (< 1gm)
* Sulfuric Acid (1 Kg H2SO4 + 5.5 gm Ag2SO4 ) dissolve for 24 hrs.
* 0.25 N Potassium Dichromate (12.259 gm K2Cr2O7 dried at [....]
COAGULATION AND FLOCCULATION CALCULATIONS
Calculations are performed during operation of the coagulation and flocculation unit processes to determine chamber or basin volume, chemical feed calibration, chemical feeder settings, and detention time.
CHAMBER AND BASIN VOLUME CALCULATIONS
To determine the volume of a square or rectangular chamber or basin, we use:
Volume (cu ft) = length (ft) x width (ft) x [....]