Electrodialysis:The ions in a water solution can be made to migrate by applying an electric field to the solution. By arranging various barriers to the flow of ions, it is possible to directly desalinate water with electricity. Such barriers are called ion-exchange membranes.
Membranes that allow a reasonable flow of cations, but block or reduce the flow of anions, [....]
Things that can cause toxicity include many of the following:
Metals: lead, antimony, copper, zinc, chromium, cadmium, nickel, manganese
Oxidizers: chlorine, chloramines, any of the group VII compounds in the
periodic table, permanganates, ozone, fluorine, iodine, peroxides, and
All of these compounds are direct toxins, because they directly interfere
with the biological [....]
Calculation of bacterial density.
The determination of indicator bacteria, total coliform, fecal coliform, and fecal streptococcus or enterococcus is very important for assessing the quality of natural waters, drinking-waters, and wastewaters.
The procedures for enumeration of these organisms are presented elsewhere (APHA et al., 1995).
Examinations of indicator bacterial density in water and in wastewater are generally performed by using [....]
1.What is Waste water
“Wastewater,” also known as “sewage,” originates from household wastes, human and animal wastes, industrial wastewaters, storm runoff, and groundwater infiltration. Wastewater, basically, is the flow of used water from a community. It is 99.94% water by weight.The remaining 0.06% is material dissolved or suspended in the water. It is largely the water supply of a community [....]